Arhitektura,  Bosna i Hercegovina,  Putovanja

Architecture of Sarajevo – East meets West

Looking through the pictures from a trip to Sarajevo I took two years ago, I was reminded of how amazed I was by the mixture of the Eastern, Ottoman-Islamic, culture, and the Western, Austro-Hungarian-Christian, culture. Both of them predominantly shaped this city in the past. Further research in architecture of Sarajevo and the architectural styles these two cultures had left behind in this city led me to a website called Red Africa, which sparked my interest and inspired this blog post. I hope you’ll enjoy reading it! 🙂

Architecture of Sarajevo in the Ottoman Era

The beginning of the Ottoman Era was 1461, when the first Bosnian governor Isa-Beg Ishaković founded the city of Sarajevo. He was a pioneer of planned construction. His work includes the Emperor’s Mosque (Careva džamija), followed by Khanqah, lodgings, as well as an administrative headquarters and a palace, or saray, the city of Sarajevo was named after. The city started to develop progressively in the mid 15th century. Sarajevo was the biggest and the most significant Ottoman city in the Balkans at the time, right behind Istanbul.

Since its foundation in the 15th century, Sarajevo was a typical oriental city consisting of two urban areas – bazaar and mahallah (residential area). Bazaar (or čaršija) was the social core of the city, shaped by a network of streets and alleys filled with shops. Religious and social public buildings were the heart of the events in the bazaar. They provided the citizens with religious and worldly services. Public buildings such as mosques, inns, bedestens (closed marketplaces), hammams (Turkish baths) especially influenced the development of the oriental Sarajevo.

Some of the most important objects of the kind, from the Ottoman Era, include:

The Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque

Next to Isa-Beg Ishaković, Gazi Husrev-beg, a triple governor of Bosnia and a constructor, was another major contributor to the city’s development and design. He invested his own money to build the Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque on the right bank of the River Miljacka in 1530. It is considered one of the most monumental objects of Ottoman-Islamic construction and the largest sacral object of Islamic architecture in this part of the world.

The Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque was built as his waqf (endowment), designed by Acem Esir Ali, the mimar (chief architect) of the Ottoman Empire, serving as the chief architect of Constantinople until his death in 1538. The mosque was designed in the Early Ottoman style and it is one of the greatest achievements of the style outside of Istanbul. The mosque was restored in 1893, which shaped the appearance it has today.

The mosque and its surrounding buildings make up the central and largest complex of the old bazaar, which significantly influenced the rest of the city’s constructions.

The Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque

Sarajevo Clock Tower (Sahat-kula)

The Sarajevo Clock Tower was built next to the Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque during the 17th century. It is the fundamental vertical monument of the Baščaršija (the main bazaar) as well as the highest clock tower in Bosnia and Herzegovina, at 30 meters. Although it was built a bit later, compared to other buildings in the old bazaar, the Sarajevo Clock Tower is closely related to the Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque and other surrounding buildings, in terms of conception and composition.

Since mechanical clocks weren’t introduced until the first half of the 16th century, the Clock Tower was built for everyone around the mosque to know the exact time. The Clock’s mechanism was brought by Sarajevo’s merchants from London in 1875 and it is still part of the Tower. During its assembly, the upper part of the Clock Tower was added and adapted for the installation and the good visibility of the dial.

The clock on the Tower is the only one in the world keeping Lunar time. The clock shows the time of Salah (Islamic daily prayers), according to which the change between night and day occurs at Maghrib (sunset), when the clock strikes 12. Since the length of days changes on a daily basis throughout the year, the time of sunset changes as well, so the timepiece requires constant calibration. The clock is set by the watchmaker titled muvekit, who climbs 76 wooden stairs to the top of the Tower once a week, to fulfill this task.

Sarajevo Clock Tower (Sahat-kula)

Morića Han

Nearby the mosque, in the Sarači Street (named after craftsmen who made leather products) is Morić Han, the only preserved caravanserai. During the Ottoman Era, it was a roadside inn for trade caravans. It was built between the 16th and 17th centuries within the Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque. It could welcome and accommodate 300 travelers and 70 horses.

Caravanserais were large objects with an enclosed and fortified yard to fit whole caravans. The room of the innkeeper was right above the main entrance so that he could have a clear view of travelers arriving and leaving. The ground floor of the inn was reserved for horses and goods to be stored, while the higher floors contained rooms for travelers (Musafir) and a large common room for coffee and conversation.

Throughout its history, Morića Han burned in fires several times, but each time it was restored following the same architectural concept. A thorough restoration of the object was carried out between 1971 and 1974. Today’s Morić Han contains several traditional taverns, some shops, as well as a restaurant that serves specialties of Bosnian cuisine.

Morića han

Isa Beg’s Hammam

Bosnian governor and the founder of Sarajevo, Isa-beg Ishaković had the Hammam (Turkish bath, also known as Emperor’s Hammam) built as well. Located near the Emperor’s Mosque, the Hammam is the oldest public bath in Sarajevo. The exact date is unknown, but it is believed to have been built at the end of the 15th century.

The Hammam was divided into men’s and women’s sections, and a while later a pool area was added, designated for Jews of Sarajevo. The old custom was that men visited Hammam before work, and women before their husbands return from work, in order to welcome them home fresh and radiant. In the beginning, Hammams were reserved for rich citizens only, whereas the poor could enjoy a bath only on special occasions (such as weddings).

Over time the Hammam building suffered through many damages, followed by complete demolition in 1889. It was rebuilt in 1891, in a pseudo-Moorish style, designed by an architect named Josip Vancaša. His design intended one part of the object to reflect the old Hammam, while the other part was based on modern, western bathrooms.

After the Austro-Hungarians left, the Isa-beg Hammam lost its original purpose, and the building was heavily damaged by grenades during the war in 1992. A detailed reconstruction has been carried out during the last couple of years. Today it is a public bath, as well as a hotel with 19 rooms and 2 suites decorated with luxurious furniture reminiscent of the Old Ottoman Style.

Isa Beg’s Hammam
(Photo taken from the site

Architecture of Sarajevo in Austro-Hungarian period

In 1878 Sarajevo was occupied by the Austro-Hungary, in spite of all the armed resistance of Bosnian people. While the Ottoman Empire was withdrawing, the incoming, Austro-Hungarian Empire was there to show its superiority by building objects of great size, most of which are now located in the heart of the city. The power of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was undeniable, considering they built more in 40 years than the Ottomans managed in 4 centuries.

The City Hall

Soon after they occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austro-Hungary needed a representative object to use as a city hall. The project was given to architect Aleksandar Vitek, who designed it between 1892 and 1893.

The hall was designed in a pseudo-Moorish style, based on The Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan in Cairo. The pseudo-Moorish style in construction emerged in Bosnia at the end of the 19th century, representing a very unusual architectural mixture of The East and The West. In order to do the job in the best possible way, Aleksandar Vitek visited Cairo twice while working on the project, in order to thoroughly examine this style of architecture.

The City Hall was built in two years, and the opening ceremony was held on April 20, 1896. It was the largest and most representative object of Austro-Hungarian architecture in Sarajevo. After World War II the administrative function of the Hall was replaced by culture, science, and arts, transforming it first into an Arts and Science Academy, and later into the National and University Library.

The City Hall met a tragic fate during the war in 1992, when it was destroyed in a flame caused by a direct hit of artillery grenades. Eighty percent of the overall library inventory burned that day, and the structure itself suffered heavy damage. Reconstruction was done following the original project, from 1996 to 2014, when the City Hall was officially reopened on Europe Day and Victory Day. Today it is used for festivities and special events on a city or state level, for regular sessions of the City Assembly, as well as for events related to arts and culture.

The City Hall

The architecture of Sarajevo and cultural diversity of the city does not cease to amaze me. How about you? Have you visited Sarajevo and how do you like the mixture of the East and the West? 🙂

If you’d like to read more about other cities in the Balkans influenced by various architectural styles and cultures throughout their history, check out the Instagram page as well as the Facebook page of Red Africa.

Arhitektura Sarajeva – spoj Istoka i Zapada

Gledajući slike sa putovanja u Sarajevo na kojem sam bila pre dve godine, prisetila sam se koliko me je tada oduševio spoj istočne, osmansko-islamske, i zapadne, austrougarsko-hrišćanske, kulture. Obe kulture imale su u prošlosti dominantnu ulogu u oblikovanju grada. Istražujući malo više o arhitekturi Sarajeva i arhitektonskim stilovima koje su za sobom ostavile ove dve kulture, naišla sam na sajt Red Africa koji me je podstakao i inspirisao da napišem blog post na ovu temu. Uživajte u čitanju! 🙂

Arhitektura Sarajeva u osmanskom periodu

Za početak osmanskog perioda uzima se 1461. godina kada je prvi bosanski namesnik Isa-beg Ishaković osnovao grad Sarajevo. On je bio prvi koji je počeo sa planskom izgradnjom. Sagradio je Carevu džamiju, zatim tekiju, prenoćište, kao i upravno sedište i dvor za stanovanje – saray po kojem je Sarajevo i dobilo ime. Sredinom 15. veka grad je počeo ubrzano da se razvija. U tom periodu Sarajevo je, posle Istanbula, bilo najveći i najvažniji grad Osmanskog carstva na Balkanu.

Od svog osnivanja u 15. veku Sarajevo je imalo tipične karakteristike orijentalnog grada koji se sastojao iz dve gradske zone – čaršije i mahale. Čaršija je predstavljala društveno jezgro grada. Oblikovala ju je mreža ulica i uličica u kojima su se nalazili nizovi dućana. Centar svih zbivanja na čaršiji bili su javni verski i društveni objekti čija je svrha bila pružanje verskih i svetovnih usluga njenom stanovništvu. Posebno značajnu ulogu za razvoj orijentalnog grada imali su javni objekti poput džamija, hanova, bezistana i hamama. Neki od najznačajnijih objekata ovog tipa iz osmanskog perioda su:

Gazi Husrev-begova džamija

Pored Ise-beg Ishakovića, za izgradnju i izgled grada u osmanskom periodu zaslužan je velikim delom i Gazi Husrev-beg. Trostruki bosanski namesnik i graditelj, Gazi Husrev-beg je na desnoj obali Miljacke, vlastitim novcem, 1530. godine izgradio Gazi Husrev-begovu džamiju. Begova džamija danas predstavlja najmonumentalniji objekat osmansko-islamskog graditeljstva i najveći sakralni objekat islamske arhitekture u ovom delu sveta.

Gazi Husrev-begova džamija izgrađena je kao vakuf (zadužbina) Gazi Husrev-bega prema projektu Adžem Esir Alija, mimara (glavnog arhitekte) Osmanskog carstva. Sve do svoje smrti 1538. godine, Adžem Esir Ali obavljao je dužnost glavnog arhitekte u Carigradu. Projekat džamije uradio je u stilu ranocarigradske arhitektonske škole. Danas ona predstavlja jedno od najvrednijih arhitektonskih ostvarenja ove škole izvan samog Carigrada. Današnji izgled džamija duguje restauraciji iz 1893. godine.

Begova džamija, zajedno sa okolnim objektima, predstavlja centralni i najveći kompleks stare čaršije koji je značajno uticao na sve ostale graditeljske aktivnosti u gradu.

Gazi Husrev-begova džamija


Tokom 17. veka uz Gazi Husrev-begovu džamiju izgrađena je i Sahat-kula koja predstavlja glavni vertikalni akcenat Baščaršije. Sa visinom od oko 30m predstavlja najvišu sahat-kulu u Bosni i Hercegovini. Iako je u odnosu na većinu objekata na staroj čaršiji izgrađena nešto kasnije, Sahat-kula je prema kompoziciji i koncepciji usko povezana sa objektom Gazi Husrev-begovog vakufa i okolnim objektima.

Izrada mehaničkih časovnika počela je da se razvija tek u prvoj polovini 16. veka. Iz tog razloga izgrađena je Sahat-kula kako bi svi u okolini Begove džamije mogli da imaju pregled tačnog vremena. Satni mehanizam, koji se i dan-danas nalazi na kuli, doneli su iz Londona sarajevski trgovci 1875. godine. Prilikom njegove montaže gornji deo Sahat-kule je dozidan i prilagođen za ugrađivanje i dobru vidljivost brojčanika.

Časovnik na Sahat-kuli predstavlja jedini sat na svetu koji pokazuje vreme prema lunarnom računanju vremena. Sat pokazuje vreme po kojem se određuje vreme namaza (islamskih dnevnih molitvi) i prema kojem se smena dana i noći dešava u vreme akšama (zalaska sunca) kada sat pokazuje 12 sati. S obzirom na to da se dužina dana u toku godine skoro svakodnevno menja, pa prema tome i vreme zalaska sunca, ovaj časovni mehanizam potrebno je stalno podešavati. Podešavanje časovnika je dužnost muvekita. On se jednom sedmično penje uz 76 drvenih stepenika na vrh kule kako bi podesio tačno vreme.


Morića han

Nedaleko od Gazi Husrev-begove džamije, u ulici Sarači koja je naziv dobila po saračima – zanatlijama koji su izrađivali različite predmete od kože, nalazi se Morića han. Ovaj objekat danas predstavlja jedini sačuvani karavan-saraj u Sarajevu. U osmanskom periodu Morića han je služio za smeštaj trgovačkih karavana. Podignut je u periodu između 16. i 17. veka, takođe, kao deo vlasništva Gazi Husrev-begove zadužbine. Morića han mogao je da primi na konak karavan od 300 putnika i 70 konja.

Karavan-saraji predstavljali su objekte velikih dimenzija sa unutrašnjim dvorištem potpuno zatvorenog i utvrđenog tipa za smeštaj kompletnih karavana. Soba handžije (upravitelja hana) nalazila se iznad samog glavnog ulaza kako bi imao slobodan pregled putnika koji dolaze i odlaze. Prizemlje hana služilo je za smeštaj konja i robe koja se odlagala u magaze. Na spratu su bile sobe za musafire (putnike) i jedna velika zajednička prostorija za razgovore uz kahvu.

Morića han je tokom svoje istorije nekoliko puta stradao u požaru. Na svu sreću, svaki put je obnavljan u gotovo istoj arhitektonskoj koncepciji. Temeljna restauracija objekta izvedena je u periodu od 1971. do 1974. godine. Danas se u Morića hanu nalazi nekoliko kafana i prodavnica, kao i restoran u kojem se može uživati u specijalitetima tradicionalne bosanske kuhinje.

Morića han

Isa-begov hamam

Bosanski namesnik i osnivač Sarajeva Isa-beg Ishaković, pored Careve džamije, dao je da se izgradi i Isa-begov hamam, poznat i kao Carev hamam. Podignut u neposrednoj blizini Careve džamije, ovaj hamam predstavlja najstariju javnu banju u Sarajevu. Ne zna se tačno koje godine je hamam izgrađen, ali se veruje da je podignut krajem 15. veka.

Hamam se sastojao iz muškog i ženskog dela. Nešto kasnije je dozidan i deo sa bazenom za potrebe sarajevskih Jevreja – Sefarda. Stari običaj je nalagao da muškarci dolaze u hamam pre posla, a žene pre povratka muževa kući kako bi ih dočekale uredne i mirisne. Hamame su u početku posećivali samo bogatiji građani. Za razliku od njih, siromašni su se u hamamu mogli kupati samo u posebnim prilikama poput svadbi.

Vremenom je zgrada hamama pretrpela određena oštećenja nakon čega je potpuno srušena 1889. godine. Banja je ponovo izgrađena 1891. godine u pseudo-mavarskom stilu prema projektu arhitekte Josipa Vancaša. Projektom je predviđeno da jedan deo objekta bude urađen po uzoru na stari hamam, dok je drugi deo urađen po uzoru na moderno kupatilo zapadnog tipa.

Nakon odlaska austrougarskih vlasti, Isa-begov hamam je izgubio svoju prvobitnu funkciju. Za vreme poslednjeg rata iz 1992. godine zgrada hamama je teško oštećena granatama. Tokom poslednjih nekoliko godina izvršena je pažljiva rekonstrukcija Carevog hamama. Danas se u njemu, pored javnog kupališta, nalazi i hotel sa 19 soba i dva apartmana koji su opremljeni luksuznim nameštajem staroosmanskog stila.

Isa-begov hamam
(Fotografija preuzeta sa sajta

Arhitektura Sarajeva u austrougarskom periodu

Godine 1878. Sarajevo je, i pored oružanog otpora koji su Bosanci pružili, okupirano od strane Austrougarske. Dok se Osmanska imperija povlačila, dolazeća Austrougarska imperija želela je da pokaže svoju superiornost izgradnjom objekata velikih dimenzija. Većina ovih objekata danas se nalazi u centralnom delu grada. Koliko je Austrougarska imperija bila moćna pokazuje i činjenica da je za nešto više od 40 godina vladavine izgradila grad onoliko koliko je Otomanska imperija uspela da izgradi za četiri veka.

Gradska većnica

Ubrzo nakon austrougarske okupacije Bosne i Hercegovine iskazana je potreba za izgradnjom reprezentativnog objekta u kojem će se nalaziti sedište gradske uprave. Posao izrade projekta za ovaj objekat poveren je arhitekti Aleksandru Viteku koji je na njemu radio od 1892. do 1893. godine.

Projekat sedišta gradske uprave urađen je u pseudo-mavarskom stilu po uzoru na džamiju i medresu Hasana II u Kairu. Pseudo-mavarski stil u gradnji pojavio se na području Bosne i Hercegovine krajem 19. veka i predstavlja neobičan arhitektonski spoj Istoka i Zapada. Kako bi posao odradio što bolje Aleksandar Vitek je tokom rada na ovom projektu dva puta odlazio u Kairo. Tamo je izučavao objekte izgrađene u ovom stilu.

Izgradnja Gradske većnice trajala je dve godine. Objekat je svečano otvoren 20. aprila 1896. godine. Danas Gradska većnica predstavlja najveće i najreprezentativnije arhitektonsko ostvarenje iz austrogarskog perioda u Sarajevu. Nakon Drugog svetskog rata administrativno-upravnu funkciju Većnice zamenjuju kultura, nauka i umetnost i ona dobija funkciju Akademije nauka i umetnosti. Nešto kasnije, dobija još jednu funkciju – postaje Nacionalna i univerzitetska biblioteka Bosne i Hercegovine.

Gradska većnica doživela je tragičnu sudbinu za vreme rata iz 1992. godine kada je potpuno razorena u požaru prouzrokovanom direktnim pogocima artiljerijskih granata. Tada je izgorelo 80% ukupnog bibliotečkog fonda, a konstrukcija objekta pretrpela je teška oštećenja. Rekonstrukcija objekta urađena je prema originalnoj projektnoj dokumentaciji u periodu od 1996. do 2014. godine kada je Gradska većnica svečano otvorena na Dan Evrope i Dan pobede nad fašizmom. Danas se zgrada većnice koristi za svečane prilike na državnom i gradskom nivou, redovne sednice Gradskog veća, kao i za kulturne i umetničke događaje.

Gradska većnica

Arhitektura Sarajeva, koja predstavlja spoj različitih kultura, ne prestaje da me oduševljava! Da li ste vi posetili Sarajevo i kako se vama dopada ovaj spoj Istoka i Zapada? 🙂

Ukoliko vas zanima da pročitate nešto više i o ostalim balkanskim gradovima koje su tokom njihove istorije obeležili različiti arhitektonski stilovi i kulture, posetite Instagram profil i Facebook stranicu Red Africa.

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